Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences to lead an active and healthy life. The four pillars of food security are availability, access, utilization and stability. Food safety is achieved in four ways, which are known as the four pillars of food security. These are availability, accessibility, affordability and utilization.
Does urbanization affect food security? Does food security affect urbanization? From this perspective, the main objectives of this research are to characterize the current contexts of food security, their relationship with sustainability and to identify proposals and actions that can support the design of more adjusted policies in the future. In addition, the diverse relationships between food safety and sustainability are complex and require more multidisciplinary evaluations. Australia supports African efforts to improve food security by increasing long-term agricultural productivity and building resilience, while meeting the immediate needs of vulnerable people when humanitarian crises occur. The cultivation of crops for nutritional purposes, the use in other sectors (such as drinking water, industry and the environment), this can be a threat to food security in the long term.
On the other hand, good nutrition, hygiene and health care practices can allow food-insecure households to access a more balanced diet and obtain more nutritional value from the foods they consume. As a result, the volume of the harvest is reduced and food prices increase, affecting the availability and accessibility of food for households. The main focus of national and international policies must be to improve agri-food supply chains and support political stability, in order to mitigate malnutrition worldwide and ensure global access to sustainable and healthy diets. Food production has largely focused on the production of crops at the expense of livestock and fishery production.
Agricultural food production for a given year is the main source of food supply for a country like Zambia. In addition, it is suggested to rethink the four pillars of food security (availability, access, utilization and stability) to cover other dimensions, such as climate change. In this context, safe drinking water plays an important role, especially in preparing food and creating a healthy environment for the population. After the introduction (section), section 2 contains a review of the concepts of food safety and sustainability.
These fields were addressed by analyzing variables related to the pillars of food security; quantifying the impacts of these variables on food insecurity and testing new variables that highlight: “There is a need to improve the available information”; climate change and food insecurity are interrelated and political stability is one of the main drivers of malnutrition. Foods must also be of the right type and quality in order to meet the nutritional needs of the human body, thus allowing people to live normal, healthy and active lives. This evaluation allowed us to identify the weaknesses of the database (statistical information on several countries and years is lacking), the weaknesses in the group of variables considered for each pillar (it would be important to consider other variables, such as those related to temperature change) and the main impacts of the variables of the four pillars on food insecurity (with information for the various stakeholders, that is, for policy makers). .